OPL-3D has been specifically designed for applications of reverse engineering and rapid prototyping, as well as for applications of measurement and quality control. The system exploits active stereo vision (the absolute approach is implemented) using time-multiplexing based on the Gray-Code-Phase-Shifting method.
The projector-camera pair
OPL-3D can host a wide variety of projectors. In Fig. 1, the device is the ABW LCD 320: it is a microprocessor-controlled and column driven projector, specifically intended to be used in this class of systems. Alternatively, those devices currently available for video projection can be succesfully used, as that one shown in Fig. 1.b (Kodak DP 900, based on DLP technology). The detector is a commercial CCD video camera. In the configuration of Fig. 1, the camera is an inexpensive colour Hitachi KP D50, with standard resolution (752×582). However, any type of camera (black/white or colour, with single or multiple CCDs for colour separation, and with different pixel densities) can be mounted on the system, depending on the application and on the projector used. In Fig. 2a, for example, a 1300 x 1030 digital video camera (Basler model ) is mounted, to acquire at the required resolution large fields of views.
The projector and the camera are mounted onto a rigid bar, that can be easily moved around the scene by means of a tripod, and that holds the adjustment units for proper orientation. The mount is fully reconfigurable: all parameters can be varied according to the distance from the target, the required measurement resolution and the FOV. Given the fact that through sophisticated calibration procedures the system is able to finely estimate the operating parameters, no accurate positioning equipment (micropositioners, microrotators) is required, the only requirement being stability of the mount during the measurement procedure.
Fig 3 shows two examples of on-site measurements of complex shapes where the full flexibility of the system was mandatory to perform the acquisition.
The electronic hardware
OPL-3D is equipped with a PC, that has the purpose of (i) driving the projector with the appropriate pattern sequence, (ii) acquiring the image sequences from the target, and (iii) elaborating the images. In addition, it contains all the features to perform sophisticated procedures for setting up and reconfiguration. The PC is in the current configuration a Pentium III 900 MHz, 1 GB Ram, equipped with a Matrox Meteor II Frame Grabber. The Projector is operated by the PC through the Serial Connector.
OPL-3D exhibits low-measurement uncertainty (120mm) over large measurement areas (450mm by 340mm), linearly scalable in the case of smaller areas. Special care has been devoted to flexibility of use, in-field measurement setting, reconfigurability and robustness against environmental light changes and surface colour and texture. Fig.4 shows the acquisition of the blue car of Fig. 2a. Multiview alignment and registration is performed by either purposely designed software or by means of commercially available products, depending on the complexity of the process.
OPL 3-D has been put into the market by Open Technologies s.r.l., Italy, a start-up company of the University of Brescia, under the Trade Name of 3DShape, in a manifold of versions, including sophisticated software for multi-view combination, point cloud manipulation and transformation, up to surface generation.